French terminology

French wine industry terminology, with most accents and other characters .. work in progress ..

– A –
acide acétique 
acetic acid
acide malique  
malic acid.
acide tartrique  tartaric acid.
acidité vive  lively, fresh acidity.
agrafe  a u-shaped metal staple used to hold the cork in place during second fermentation of some prestige champagnes.
agrumes  citrus.
aiguille de pin  pine needles.
alcooleux  alcoholic, spirity eg plutôt alcooleux  quite alcoholic.
allochtone  allochthonous, as in wine varieties not traditionally grown in a region.
amer ou amére  bitter.
amertume  bitterness.
amande  almond
ananas  pineapple.
anis étoillé  star anise.
argile  clay.
argilo-calcaire ou argileux-calcaire ou terre blanche  clayey-limestone, has an important role in thermo-regulation (reflects heat keeping the soil cool), and water supply (acts as a water retentive reservoir up to a point, and then freely drains away any excess supply).  The term equates to marl, which is a mixture of 30-60% clay and 60-30% limestone.
argilo-limoneux  clayey-silt (alluvial).
argilo-siliceux  clayey-sand.
arôme (nm)  aroma.
arriére goût ou déboire  aftertaste with a disagreeable dimension.
arrosage  spraying.
assemblage  a blending of various vats of wine, or various varieties.
averse de grêle  hail storm.

– B –
 pruning term related to the taille de la Marne method, in use in the Champagne region, where a previous year’s mature cane is left vertical with a small number of buds towards its furthest end from the soil – helps defend, by providing a remedy, against frost damage in the Vallee de la Marne.
baie de sureau  elderberry.
barrique  Bordeaux name for a 225 litre barrel.
basse cour  farmyard, in relation to brettanomyces.
battonage  lees stirring.
Beaujolais Nouveau  wine of the current vintage that can be commercialised until 31 August of the following year.
Beaujolais Primeur  wine of the current year that can be commercialised via the trade until some date in the Spring following that vintage.
béton  concrete.
beurrée  buttery, buttered.
biodynamique  biodynamic.
biologique  organic.
boisé  translates as wooded or woody. This term is used in the production of VS Cognac and relates to the use of oak chips.  There is more than one explanation and/or depth of explanation of what it means … (1) WSET, Distilling Knowledge …use of oak chips is traditional practice to give an oakiness to a spirit destined for VS style, faster than in barrel – this means added colour and softening of the edge of a young Cognac; (2) Nicholas Faith, Guide to Cognac and Other Brandies …boisé – use of oak chips soaked in old Cognac, it  is traditional practice, to speed the ageing process and give a false impression of additional age, normally added to cognac within the first 2 years… …boisé can also compensate for any lack of character in cognacs left in cask for long periods… … few admit to using it; (3) Brandy Classics …rather than caramel, boisé is a more natural way of adding colour to a cognac, it is made by lengthy boiling of oak chips in cognac to produce a dark syrupy liquid.  It adds colour to a cognac but can give a slightly bitter flavour. This disappears with time, and the result is a more intense flavour and richness, but only careful use will achieve this. (4) BNIC regulations make no formal reference to boisé, but …oak infusion for final adjustment… is permitted.

Boisé can also be used to describe the sensory characteristics of a wine fermented and/or aged in wood, eg notes of toast, coconut, spice and vanilla.

bouchon  cork or stopper (or traffic jam when in France).
bouchon à vis ou capsule à vis  (nm) screw cap.
bouchonné  corked, from TCA contamination (a discussion in French…)
bouillie bordelaise  Bordeaux mixture, a fungicide used against all mildews, consisting of copper sulphate and slaked lime.
boulbène an acid sandy-clay soil.
bourgeon ou yeux  bud.
brettanomyces  brettanomyces.
brut de cuve  unfinished vat sample.

– C –
 juniper, juniperus oxycedrus, a species of juniper common to the Mediterranean region, ranging in size from shrub to tree. The extract from twigs has an aroma of thick sweet wood bonfire smoke, used in some shampoo, probably with some antispetic properties.. 
cahier des charges 
specifications, official guidelines
caillotte  hard compact chalk.
caillouteux  stony, pebbly.
calcaire  limestone.
calcaire asteries  limestone with fossil starfish inclusions.
caniculaire  heat wave.
canneberge  cranberry.
cannelle  cinnamon.
capiteux  heady, intoxicating, high in alcohol.
capsule  capsule.
capsule à vis ou bouchon à vis  screw cap closure.
cardamome  cardamon.
carton mouillé  wet cardboard, in relation to cork taint.
cassis  blackcurrant; cassis is often used to imply a concentrated rich aroma/flavour of blackcurrant, in this case crème de cassis should be used, instead.
caudalie  the duration of the finish in seconds, after spitting/swallowing, commonly short at < 6 seconds, medium  at >6<12 seconds and long >= 18 seconds.
causse  plateau.
cave  cellar.
caviste  cellarman, wine merchant.
cèdre  cedar.
cep (de vigne)  vine stock.
cépage  grape variety.
cerise  cherry.
chaîne d’embouteillage et d’étiquetage  bottling and labelling line.
chalereux  heat, as in alcoholic.
chaos  a seemingly chaotic boulder field landscape, created by wind, water and frost weathering.
changement climatique (les effets du ..)  climate change (the effects of ..).
chapeau  crust, head of fermenting must.
charnu  fleshy.
charpenté  structured, robust, full-bodied.
chef de culture  vineyard manager.
chêne  oak.
chien mouillé  wet dog, in elation to brettanomyces.
cheval  horse.
chou-fleur  cauliflower.
cire d’abeille  beeswax.
citronelle  lemon balm.
citron  lemon.
citron vert   lime.
climat  vineyard, or a terroir-specific site within a vineyard.
climatique  climate.
clos  a walled vineyard.
clou de girofle  clove.
coeur de cuvée  in terms of champagne production, the cuvée is the first 2050 l of juice from the pressing of 4000 kg of grapes, the coeur or heart of the cuvée is the juice from the centre of that pressing, and is regarded as the best of the best quality juice.
coing  quince.
collage  fining.
coller (vt)  to fine.
collerette  neck band or label.
colloïde  colloid, a very fine particle with a diameter of (2-500)µm, see for example.
coiffe  metal cap atop a sparkling wine cork, to stabilise the muselet or wire cage which fits over the top.
colle  glue.
compote (nf)  stewed fruit.
confit  candied, conserve.
coriandre  coriander.
corsé  full-bodied, robust.
côt  spur.
côte (côteaux)  slope(s), hillside(s).
coup de patte (nm)  a helping hand .. in the winery.
  mature wood retained after winter pruning following the current vintage, either cane or spur.
craie  chalk.
crotte de souris  mouse droppings, in relation to brettanomyces.
croupe  slope, fig. rump.
cru  a vineyard officially classified as being of some extraordinary quality.
cru artisan  a classification for wines considered to be of a quality just below cru bourgeois. See 1, 2.
cru bourgeois  prior to 2003 a 3-step cru bourgeois quality system existed – Cru Bourgeois, Cru Bourgeois Supérieur and Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel, but this was disputed at the 2003 reclassification, and acrimoniously abandoned in 2007.

Between 2007 and 2009 there was a grower initiative instituted by l’Alliance des Crus Bourgeois du Médoc, to introduce qualitative evaluation to determine award of (plain) Cru Bourgeois status for a particular wine for the vintage. This system was ratified by the authorities in 2009, with publication each September, starting 2010, of wines meeting the Cru Bourgeois requirements.

A replacement three level system, of Cru Bourgeois, Cru Bourgeois Supérieur and Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel, will be technically valid from the 2017 vintage, but not unveiled publicly until 2020.  This means that, theoretically, 2017 will be the first vintage evaluated according to the new system. Let us hope that it does not end up in the courts again.

The new classification was announced in early 2020, but had been boycotted by the top wines of the 2003 edition eg Sociando Mallet and Ormes de Pez. This somewhat devalued the system as a whole, though there is hope that they will re-join in the future. The classification is to be repeated at 5 year intervals, so next up 2025.
cuir  leather.
cumin  cumin.
curretage – a vigilant growing season pruning system attempting to deal with vine trunk disease.
cuvage  fermentation.
cuvaison  generally refers to red wine making, it is the period of contact between skin, pips and juice, spanning the period from pre-fermentation cold soaking maceration (~13-15C), through alcoholic fermentation, to post-fermentation warm maceration, ie all processes prior to pressing.
cuve  vat of stainless steel, unless otherwise noted.
cuve de béton  concrete vat.
cuve en acier  inox, stainless steel vat.
cuve résine  fibre glass vat.
cuvée  a blend, or in terms of champagne production the first 2050 l of juice from pressing 4000 kg of grapes, it is regarded as the best quality juice.
cuverie  vat/fermentation cellar.
cuvier inox thermo-régulé  temperature controlled stainless steel vat.
cuvier en pierre  concrete vat.

– D –
débourbage  post pressing gravity settling of solid materials (les bourbes) in the juice, and then running the clear wine off; can be accelerated by chilling or adding pectinolytic enzymes to reduce juice viscosity.
décanter (v) to settle, in order to clarify, so by gravity.
défaut  fault.
dégustation de vins  wine tasting.
délestage  pumping over, or rack and return. In detail, the fermenting juice is racked off the bottom of the vat, leaving the grape skin cap at the bottom; the juice is then returned to the vat, after a period which could be a few hours, from the top, to re-hydrate the solids. The cap then rises slowly through the returned juice, which improves the maceration effect.
demi-muid  a wooden barrel, a half hog’s head, of about 600 l capacity.
demi-sec  medium dry.
dépôt   sediment.
diachylon  band aid, in relation to brettanomyces.
dioxyde de carbone  carbon dioxide, CO2.
dosage  a sparkling wine term, in which the desired finished style of wine, in terms of sweetness, can be altered, between disgorgement and final bottling, by the addition of a solution of cane or beet sugar, the dosage. The dosage is mixed together with either the same wine as in the bottle, or a reserve wine, to give the desired overall style. Wine is added, because some liquid is lost in the disgorgement process.
doux  sweet.
dur  hard, as in tannins, high in tannins and acidity.
durable  sutainable.

– E –
ébourgeonnage  dis-budding.
échalas  (vine training) stake.
échantillon  sample, eg as in spirit miniature.
écouler (vt)  to run off, eg liquid from solids.
éffeuillage  de-leafing.
éggrapage  de-stemming, also see érafler
élevage  the period between the end of the alcoholic fermentation and bottling, including MLF, clarification, filtering, blending and ageing in some vessel.
eleve en fut de chene  matured  in oak barrel, cask, or other oaken vessels.
empyreumatique  this term characterises the family of burnt notes eg tobacco, roasted, caramel, toast, dark chocolate …
en foule  see provignage.
en primeur  BBR explain this quite well. There is resistance to the use of this system, most notably Chateau Latour, which withdrew after the 2011 vintage.
enherbé  herbaceous growth between vine rows.
épice  spice.
épicé  spicy.
équilibrée  balanced.
érafler   to de-stem, also see éggrapage.
érafloir  destemmer.
étiquette  label.
evaporation sous vide  evaporation under pressure, a process by which water can be removed from juice or must.
extraite  extract.

– F –
fenouil  fennel.
fermage  tenant farming.
fermentations alcooliques bloquées  stuck fermentation.
fermentation malolactique  malolactic fermentation.
fermentation naturelle  spontaneous fermentation.
fève (de cacao)  cocoa bean.
feuille  leaf.
feuillette  Chablis name for a 132 litre barrel.
filtration sur terre  filtration using diatomaceous earth, aka kieselguhr filtration.
finale (nf)  finish.
fleur de sureau  elderflower.
floraison  flowering.
foudre  a large wooden vat (stands on its end, and is wider at its base than  at the top) or barrel, typically of oak. They are much larger than a barrique, ranging from 1500-35000+ litres, and are typically used for slow and gentle ageing. They can achieve venerable age, when well maintained. If a foudre is new, the relatively low surface area to volume ratio ensures that the oak has a low-key impact, alternative woods include chestnut.
fouler (vt)  to crush.
foulage  crushing.
fraise (nf)  strawberry.
framboise (nf)  raspberry.
francs de pied  (planting) ungrafted vines.
fruit de la passion (nm)  passion fruit.
fruits a noyau  stone fruit.
fruits du verger  orchard fruit.
fruité  fruity.
fruit vert  underripe.
fût a generic name for a large wooden barrel or cask, typically fût de chêne.

– G –
(nf)  scrub, herbs, typically sage, thyme, rosemary, lavender, savoury, pine …
gaz carbonique  
carbonic gas ie CO2.
gel (m)  frost.
genévrier (nm)  juniper.
gingembre  ginger.
gouleyant  easy to drink, easy drinking.
gousse de vanille (nf)  vanilla pod.
goût de lumière  lightstruck, the degradation of a wine caused by exposure to ultraviolet light, with symptomatic aroma and flavour profiles including wet cardboard or wet wool; the effect can occur in wines bottled in both clear and green glass.
goyave (nf)  guava.
grappe (nf) cluster, bunch  ~de raisins bunch of grapes.
gras  fat, as in a full viscous mouthfeel of eg a Sauternes.
gravelle (nf)  gravel
graviers  gravelly soil.
greffe (nf)  graft.
greffer (vt)  transplant, graft.
grêle (nf)  hail.
grès  (nm)  sandstone
grés  stony ground
grillé  grilled.
griotte morello cherry (a sour cherry, very dark skinned).
groseille à maquereau (nf)  gooseberry.
groseille rouge (nf)  red currant.
guêpe  wasp.

– H –
herbacé  herbaceous.
herbeux  grassy.

– J –
jus (de citron)
  (lemon) juice.

– L –
liqueur d’expedition  ou liqueur de dosage  a solution of cane or beet sugar and either the same wine as in the bottle, or a reserve wine, added between disgorgement and final bottling, to give the desired style.
liqueur de tirage  a sweet solution of cane or beet sugar (20-24 grams/litre, generating CO2 gas for a rise in pressure of up to 6 bars, 87 psi), wine, yeast, and blended still base wine, which is then bottled, commonly under crown cap, to create a secondary fermentation in bottle.
cork (the material, not the closure, see bouchon)

lies  lees.
lieu-dit  a name given to a terroir-specific area of vineyard.
limoneux  alluvial or ‘silt’ deposits (rather than wind-blown deposits known as loess), for example, sablo-limoneux = a sandy-alluvial soil.
limpide  limpid, clear.
liquoreux  sweet, rich.
longeur  length.
lutte raisonnée  a vineyard management system where the grower only uses chemical treatments when essential, and selectively ie only where needed within a vineyard.

– M –
macération carbonique
 carbonic maceration.
maceration pelliculaire  pre-pressing maceration of white grapes on the skins at low temperature, to extract flavour precursors, can be done under a CO2 blanket.
macération semi-carbonique  semi-carbonic maceration.
machine à vendanger  mechanical harvester.
maladie du blanc ou oidium   powdery mildew.
maquis (nm)  scrub, gnarled undergrowth.
marmelade  stewed fruit.
marne  marl, marlstone
mélange (nm)  a blend (of vareties).
menthe  mint.
méridional(e)  ou du sud  southern.
méthode ancestrale  see pétillant naturel.
(Le) Midi  the south of France, that is south of 45N, below which the weather improves markedly. The area comprises, in terms of regions, the southern halves of Nouvelle Aquitaine and Auvergne-Rhône -Alpes, Occitanie, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, and Corsica.
miel  honey.
mielleux  honeyed.
mildiou  downy mildew.
millésime  vinatage year.
moelle (de citron)  (lemon) pith.
moëlleux  from moelle or marrow, meaning full of marrow, soft, softness; so it is a textural term, as well as indicating medium-sweet in the context of wine.
moisi  mouldy, musty.
moisi-terreux  mouldy-earthy.
moissure (nf)  mold.
moka  mocha.
molasse  shallow marine deposits of sandstone, shale and conglomerates.
mou  soft (acidity), lacking acidity.
moût de raisin  grape must, essentially alcoholic grape juice with solids.
mûr  ripe.
mûre ou mûre sauvage  blackberry.
mûrir (vt) to ripen.
muscade  nutmeg.
muselet  wire cage restraining a sparkling wine cork, also see coiffe.
mutage  adding alcohol to arrest fermentation, eg vin muté.

– N –
noisettes grillées
  roasted hazelnut.
noix de muscade  
non filtré  
berry set.
noyau  kernel

– O –
(nf)  smell.
œuf pourri 
rotten egg.
ou maladie du blanc  powdery mildew.
topping up, to avoid oxidation during ageing in wood.
ortie  nettle.

– P –
pain grillé  
toast (also see rôtie).
(nm) palate.
palissage  trellis, trellissing.
pamplemousse (m)  grapefruit.
par gravité  
gravity fed.
pente  slope.
pétillant  lightly sparkling.
pétillant naturel
ou pét nat  (aka méthode ancestrale) is a sparkling wine made by bottling still fermenting wine must, so retaining the CO2 gas produced. The wine may be released with sediment, or disgorged off the sediment. Bottle variation is intrinsic to the process.
piéce  Burgundy name for a 228 litre barrel.
pied (de vigne)  vine, lit. vine head, used in planting density ie pieds à l’hectare, also pied de celeri ou laitue – head of celery or lettuce.
pierre à briquet  flint.
pierre à fusil  gun flint, a romantic term for sulphur.
pigeage  punching down.
pivoine  peony
pointu(e)  sharper, thinner, (higher) acidity.
poivre  pepper.
poivron rouge ou vert  red or green pepper.
pomme blette  rotten apple.
porte-greffe  root stock.
pourriture aigre  sour rot, when birds, insects or hail damage grape skins, allowing bacteria to enter and turn the juice to vinegar. Try sniffing plums that have wasp damage, with browning flesh around the points of entry.
pourriture noble   noble rot, botrytis, botrytis cinerea.
presser (vt)  to press.
prestige cuvée  ou tête de cuvée  the top quality level of a Champagne house’s range eg Dom Perignon (the first such cuvée), Taittinger’s Comtes de Champagne, Cristal ..
prix de sortie  opening price.
provignage ou en foule  an extremely dense planting system, literally in a crowd, with as many as 30k vines/ha. The process to achieve this is layering, a common method of plant propagation eg strawberries, in which in early winter, a cane from an exisiting vine is buried in a u-shape, with the free end above ground. In spring the buried part develops roots, forming a new vine, allowing continuous regeneration of a vineyard (as vines inevitably do die, or become damaged), albeit with a great complexity of roots.

– R –
(nm)  grape.
rancio  an oxidised profile – melted butter, nutty, walnuts, candied and cooked over-ripe fruit, rich fruit cake.
rang (de vigne)  row (of vines).
râpeux  rough (tannins)
rebêche  in champagne production, refers to any excess juice extracted after the permitted juice of 2550 l has been run off. It cannot be used in champagne production, and may be sent to distillation.
recolté (nf)  harvest.
recompense  award.
régisseur (nm)  estate manager.
réglisse (nf ou nm)  liquorice.
pumping over, where the juice is pumped out from the bottom of the vat, and sprayed over the cap, to keep it submerged.
rendement (nm)  yield.
romarin (nm)  rosemary.
rôti  roast.
(nf)  slice of toast (also see pain grillé).

– S –
 sandy soil.
sablo-limoneux  sandy-alluvial soil.
safran  saffron.
saignée  when starting 
a black grape fermentation, some juice is run off (which goes to making rose), to increase the ratio skin:liquids, with the aim of developing a more concentrated red wine.
saline  salty.
sans année  non-vintage.
sans millésime  non-vintage.
sarment  vine shoot.
sarriette  savoury, the herb, part of the garrigue herb ensemble.
sauge   sage.
saveur (nf)  flavour.
savon soap.
savonneux  soapy.
sec  dry.
sec tendre  off dry.
selection de grains nobles  botrytis (aka noble rot) infected grapes, which lose water and shrivel as a result. This concentrates sugars, acids, and aroma and flavour precursors, enabing the creation of a characterful sweet dessert style of wine.
selle de cheval  horse saddle, in relation to brettanomyces.
senteur (nf)  perfume.
 a soil composed of clay, flint, limestone and silica (sand).
siliceuse  siliceous (soil), a sedimentary soil composed largely of quartz and silica.
soufre  sulphur.
souple  soft, a wine with a low acidity
sous vide concentration  vacuum concentration, the removal of water or any desirable component, depending on filter pore size, including alcohol.
soutirage  racking off the lees.
stockage (du vin)  (wine) storage facility.
sucrosité  sweetness.
sueur de cheval  horse sweat, in relation to brettanomyces.
sulfate de cuivre  copper sulphate.
sulfite  sulphite.
sur lattes (horizontal storage) on racks. Typically referred to when speaking of ageing on the lees, during the second fermentation of a sparkling wine.
sur lie  ageing on the lees.
surmaturité  over-ripe
surmûris  over-ripe

– T –
taille  in champagne production, refers to the pressing following the cuvée (the first 2050 l of juice), the taille representing the next 500 l of juice. The juice is fruity with lower acidity and can be used in a blend, or in its own right – producing champagne with a relatively short lifespan. The sum of 2550 l of juice represents the maximum permitted extraction from 4000 kg of grapes. Any juice extraction after that is termed the rébeche.
taille à côts
  head or cordon trained, spur pruned, where with the exception of a small number of short spurs (côts) bearing 2 or 3 buds, all previous seasons’ growth is removed, with the aim of controlling yield. This system is used in Sauternes (alternatively single guyot), where it is known as taille en éventail.
taille courte  severe pruning, synonym for taille à côts.
tailler (vt)  prune.
tanins bien fondus  smooth tannins.
tanins bien intégré  well-integrated tannins.
terra vitis  a production system mid-way between organic and traditional.
terreux  earthy.
tête de cuvée ou prestige cuvée  the top quality level of a Champagne house’s range eg Dom Perignon (the first such cuvée), Taittinger’s Comtes de Champagne, Cristal ..
texture poudreuse (f)  powdery texture.
thym  thyme.
tilleul  lime tree
toasté  toasted.
tonneau  a volume of 900 litres in Bordeaux, that is 4 barriques.
tonnellerie  cooperage.
torréfaction  roasting; in tasting it is an umbrella term for eg burnt caramel, charred wood, roasted coffee, wood smoke.
torréfié  roasted.
tourbe  peat.
tout court  a blend across lieux-dits from the same vineyard.
transvaser (v)  to decant.
triage  translates as sorting out, in effect the use of multiple picking passes, or tries, to select only the grapes which satisfy a particular ripeness requirement. Triage is also used in hospitals, in the sense that incoming patients are sorted, by the triage reception unit, and sent to their initial care discipline.
trie de nettoyage  a pass usually made through the vineyard to remove bunches affected by grey, rather than noble, rot, or to remove those that are significantly underripe, in relative terms.
truffe  truffle.

– V –
variété de raisin  grape variety.
végétal  vegetal.
(tanins) veloutés velvety tannins
vendange en vert  green harvest, thinning the (immature) crop.
vendange tardive  late harvest, equating to super-ripe grapes with an extra long hang time, which allows the development of more complex aroma and flavour precursors. Resultant wine styles range of rich and dry, to sweet dessert.
vendangeur, -euse  (nm,f)  a grape picker.
the onset of ripening.
green, a wine with excessive acidity.
vigne (nf)  vine.
vigneron, -onne (nm,f)  wine grower (though strictly, and logically, vine grower), there is no word for winemaker as the belief is that by proper tending the vines, the wine will make itself.
vignoble (nm)  vineyard.
vinaigre  vinegar.
vin clair  in champagne production, a still or base wine awaiting blending, with other vins clairs, prior to second fermentation.
vin corsé  full-bodied wine.
vin de comptoir  low quality mass produced wine.
vin de coupage  blended wine.
vin raffiné  fine (of refined quality) wine.
vin de cépage  varietal wine
vin de France  is wine without geographic indication, it replaced, on 01/08/2009, the classification vin de table.
vin de garde  wine for laying down.
vin de paille  wine made from dried grapes.
vin de soif  easy drinking, thirst-quenching quaffable wine, fruity, lacking complexity, inexpensive eg Beaujolais Nouveau or a basic one-dimensional Chilean merlot.
vin gris  an unofficial term, referring to a very pale rosé wine.  It can be vinified from red grapes, in two ways – either vinified in the white wine manner ie crushing, minimal time on the skins, then pressing and fermentation, or as a byproduct of red wine production, in that a light pre-fermentation pressing is employed to again give a pale juice, which is then fermented separately. The latter concentrates the remaining must which then becomes more coloured, giving a deeper hued red wine.
vin léger  light-bodied wine.
vin moyennement corsé  medium-bodied wine.
vin usé  a wine that is too old, in a decline, losing its sensory qualities.
vinification  wine making.
vins d’assemblage  blended wine.
violette  violet (the flower).
viticulture durable  sustainable viticulture.

– Y –
yeux ou bourgeon  bud.

– Z –
zestes d’agrumes séchés  dried citrus peel.
zeste (de citron)  (lemon) zest.

Updated 18/04/20

About citbp

I am interested in everything about wine, from site selection to tasting.
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